London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) in partnership with Raising Voices and CEDOVIP successfully conducted the follow up survey (SASA! study) to assess the impact of SASA! as implemented by CEDOVIP in Rubaga and Makindye Divisions. The preliminary findings showed significant progress on effectiveness of preventing VAW as will be seen in the report released by the (LSHTM):
- Change in behaviours such as men sharing household chores with their partners, improved couple communication, including acceptance of women’s negotiation for safe sex.
- Many community members deliberately talk with their neighbours and peers about creating safe relationships with their partners and explain to those who use violence that it is not acceptable.
- Many community members take individual and collective actions to prevent acts of violence and create family rules that say no to violence.
- Many community members and local leaders report reduced physical violence against women.
- Preliminary SASA! study results indicate that CEDOVIP made significant steps in reducing sexual violence against women and reduced concurrent partnerships among both men and women.
- Community activists took on a leadership role to sustain activism to prevent VAW after CEDOVIP’s exit and they are committed to mentor many more activists to prevent VAW the SASA! way.
- We made significant steps to shift social acceptability of intimate partner violence. In particular the acceptability of physical violence and women’s right to say no to sex among both women and men.
The national SASA! roll out parnters, with CEDOVIP’s support inspired many community members to create activism to prevent VAW in their communities. In Kasitu Bundibujjo community, activists (CAs) formed a CA association that will sustain activism after CEDOVIP winds up the partnership. In Palisa, Gulu and Lira a strong collaboration between staff, CAs, police, local leaders and health workers as well as Nzito, the king of Batwa, continued to mobilize communities to prevent VAW.
- CSO Partners report that SASA! enabled them to structure their VAW work in a systematic way and they are clearer about what they can do, how to do it, and the realistic outcomes within a specific timeframe, thus their programming has improved.
- Partner CSOs reached out to more than 50,000 community members who included men in drinking joints, carpentry, bodaboda stages and markets. This enabled men to recognize the benefits of non-violence in their relationships and families. Many community members took on responsibility to prevent VAW and some are supporting women experiencing violence, while others committed to support men, who use violence in order to change their behaviour.
- A big number of community activists in Busoga publicly shared personal benefits from the program i.e. renewed relationships, self esteem and respect from community. This, in the long run, will inspire many people to use their power to join and expand the activism within communities.
- There is a considerable ownership of the program by community members in Busoga (through community action groups) where there are many community members and local leaders promoting SASA! ideas of respect, safety and healthy relationships and also supporting community activists to reach out to other community members to create fairness in their relationships.
- Some husbands and wives to CAs joined their spouses in initiating community dialogues to create awareness on VAW and HIV by supporting their partners to mobilize community members for activities and personally resonating with the SASA! ideas. This presents an opportunity for the extended activism within the communities.
- Many community members in Busoga broke the silence around VAW and they demanded for the authorities to take quick action against the perpetrators.
- Produced a report that estimated the cost of domestic violence to the economy of Uganda and enabled the public and policy makers to pay attention to preventing domestic violence.
- In partnership with the Domestic Violence Coalition and the Uganda Law Reform Commission, translated the DVA into 8 local languages
- Successfully launched the translated versions of the Domestic Violence Act and developed simple info sheets to create awareness about the DVA.
- Increased the public’s awareness of the DVA through the media work as well as established close working relationships with the Judicial Service Commission and the Judicial Training Institute. This collaboration will be vital in enabling the implementation of the DVA.
CEDOVIP was the pioneer organization in implementing SASA!, a community mobilization approachin 2008. Between 2008 and 2012, a cluster randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of SASA!in Kampala, Uganda. Some of the key results were that in the intervention communities compared to control ones, women and men were less likely to accept a man’s use of violence against a partner; and when women experienced sexual or physical violence from an intimate partner, they were more likely to receive a better response from the community. Further information on SASA!study results can be found at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/122.
The Domestic Violence Act (DVA)
CEDOVIP successfully participated in the drafting of the Domestic Violence Bill, advocated for its passing into law by Parliament, and is currently advocating for its implementation.Under the DVA coalition, the DVAwas translated into eight local languages including Luganda, Runyankore-Rukiga, Runyoro-Rutooro, Rukonzo, Akarimajong, Alur, Luo, and Ateso.Over 10,000 copies were printed and have been disseminated in different regions of the country.
The DVA coalition and CEDOVIP have continued with awareness raising about the Act. There is now increased awareness on the law, resulting inincreased reporting of cases.
Uganda Police Force
CEDOVIP has been able to work with the Uganda Police Force as an institution, to strengthen their response to Gender Based Violence (GBV) in general, and has advocated for the inclusion of GBV in the Police training curriculum. To date,we have trained over 500 police officers in handling cases of violence against women.
CEDOVIP has also influencedthe police to start the process of institutional reform, for example weprovided technical support in the process of developing the proposal for the establishment of theGBV directorate.
CEDOVIP has worked with three health institutions in Kampala (Kawaala, Kitebi, and Kiruddu health centers) and strengthened their response to addressing cases of violence, especially sexual violence. For instance, they have been able to avail free post-exposure prophylaxis to survivors of rape andto assess people experiencing violence andrefer them appropriately to where they can find support.
CEDOVIP is working with the Ministry of Health as a resource in the development of their SGBV curriculum for health care workers.
Referral Point Networks
CEDOVIP created the first referral directory for GBV services in Kampala,and fosteredharmonization between the referral points including the community, police, health workers, judiciary, and civil societyorganizations. This makes it easier for survivors to seek support because the points are defined, duty bearers know where to refer survivors for additional support, and those in charge are more responsive. See the Referral Directory
We also support the network to provide survivor-centered services, for example by training them to strengthen their knowledge and skills to effectively respond to victims of VAW/G.
Justice, Law and Order Sector (JLOS)
Capacity building for 100 staff including court clerks, magistrates, and state attorneys from the Directorate of Public Prosecution (DPP), including training them on GBV and the new laws of GBV, and giving them copies of the DVA and referral directory.
We established a close working relationship and have a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Judicial Training Institute that is also in the process of reviewing the judicial officers’ curriculum.
We influenced the DPP to establish an SGBV department. We also signed an MoU with the DPP to support development of a prosecutor’s manual and standard operating procedures for their state attorneys when handling GBV.
CEDOVIP has been able to work with the District Coordination Committees (DCC) of Nabweru and Nakawa Chief Magistrates Courts through building the capacity of the DCC members to include GBV on their agenda, hold each other accountable, prioritize DCC meetings, and have one-on-one follow up.
Additionally, they have also worked with CEDOVIP to reach out to the communities through open court sessions.
CEDOVIP worked with the DPP, Office of the Registrar of High Court, JLOS secretariat, and the Judicial Studies Institute who agreed to form an advisory committee that will guide how CEDOVIP works with the entire JLOS to prioritize responses to GBV cases.
In partnership with the Makerere University Economic Policy Research Center, CEDOVIP was able to put a cost to domestic violence in order to get the country’s attention. A study had previously been done focusing on health centers alone, but CEDOVIP had to focus on all duty bearers and align the cost to the most recent statistics on domestic violence. This interested policy makers, and the DVA is the only law that has made people ask about the availability of resources for implementation. Parliamentarians tasked Ministry of Gender to come up with a policy and certificate of funding so that the law can be funded. The entire Cabinetof 2013/14 signed a commitment to support the approval of the GBV policy when presented to Cabinet, so thatfunds could be allocated for its implementation.
We have come up with sector-specific policy briefsthat make recommendations on which activities money can be allocated to. Civil society and other actors are using these to question different ministries and Government departmentsfor the implementation of the DVA. Visit ourpolicy briefs.
CEDOVIP has strengthened capacity of the local government in Busoga region to spearhead efforts to prevent and respond to domestic violence using SASA!methodology under their community development services. People in the region are beginning to break the taboos of domestic violence andchild marriages and ensure equitable relationships.
CEDOVIP has partnered with the Private Sector Foundation (PSF) to incorporate violence prevention into PSF programs, since domestic violence was affecting program success.
CEDOVIP has built the capacity of different media teams, including the parliamentary reporters (45), court reporters(45), presenters(30), and editors (25) for print and electronic media. The media now does more objective and balanced reporting on domestic violence compared to the sensationalist approach. They care about the safety and dignity of the survivor, and follow up on what the police and judiciary have done. They condemn violence against women in the editorial and in their articles, and are giving more prominence to people talking about violence, as well as questioning what the government has done in implementing the DVA.
The media fraternity now has an informal network of reporters working on domestic violence.
CEDOVIP has worked since 2000 on the prevention of violence against women (VAW) in Uganda. Some of the major successes include:
- Winning the UNAIDS 2010 Red Ribbon Award for innovative work in preventing violence against women and HIV.
- Piloted SASA! a new and promising approach at the community level which comprehensively and provocatively addresses the intersection between VAW and HIV in Rubaga and Makindye Divisions in Kampala, Uganda.
- Promote national prevention of violence against women through national SASA! rollout through capacity-building and coordination of 8 NGOs partners in 8 districts. In addition, we work with the Community Development Officers in another 8 districts of the Busoga sub-region to mobilize communities to prevent violence against women. This is part of the Government of Uganda- Irish Aid Joint Programme to address GBV in the Busoga sub-region.
- CEDOVIP’s SASA! is the site of an extensive process and impact assessment through a collaboration of Raising Voices, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and Makerere University. It includes a randomized control trial of 1584 community members, a study to assess the cost/benefit ratio of the approach, as well as an extensive study on the qualitative components. These studies lead to understanding in detail the implications of community-based violence prevention efforts, creating simple tools other organizations implementing SASA! can use, and also to contribute to the larger body of knowledge in the field of violence prevention.
- Influenced Parliamentary tabling and passage of the Domestic Violence Bill into an Act of parliament in November 2009.
- Mobilizing the community in Kawempe Division to prevent domestic violence. This intense grassroots activism encouraged community members, leaders, and heads and staff of key institutions to rethink domestic violence and to take action to prevent it in their families and communities. This program, based on Mobilizing Communities to Prevent Domestic Violence (Raising Voices 2003), has been highlighted as a promising practice.
- Developed and published Responding to Domestic Violence: A Handbook for the Police Force. This publication, which was developed in collaboration with the Uganda Police Force (UPF), acts as a standardized protocol to guide officers handling cases of domestic violence.
- Created the first ever Domestic Violence Bylaw in Uganda, in collaboration with the Kawempe community and leadership structures. The Bylaw was used to enhance, legitimize and inform advocacy for national legislation on the Domestic Violence Act, as well as serving as a model for other communities in Uganda.
- Increased public attention and awareness on VAW in Uganda through intense media engagement. This has also positioned CEDOVIP as a credible voice linked to the grassroots and capable of bringing these critical issues into national policy arenas.
- Scaled up the community mobilization approach used in Kawempe Division to 10 communities (9 districts) throughout Uganda. These grassroots efforts are essential to creating a new climate in Uganda that is respectful of women’s human rights. It is also helpful in informing and promoting national policy and legislative reform.
- With Raising Voices, established and coordinates a Learning Center for activists working to prevent domestic violence. More than 300 activists and practitioners from around the region and world have come to learn practical skills of effective community mobilization to prevent VAW.
- Engaging positively and sustainably in various policy review and formulation processes. For example, national training curriculum on managing GBV cases with the Ministry of Health and World Health Organization, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) policy revision processes, and particularly the Domestic Violence Act drafting and successful advocacy.
- Successfully coordinated the national Domestic Violence Bill Coalition, whose members include CSOs, members of the donor community, religious leaders, members of parliament, and media houses from throughout Uganda.
- Spearheads the annual national observance of 16 Days of Activism against violence against women, since 2000.
- Strengthened the capacity of over 600 police officers, religious leaders, health care providers, and probation officers in Kampala . This created institutional changes in both policy and practice that led to improved service delivery for women experiencing violence.
- Developed CEDOVIP as a center where staff and management are committed to a professional, ethical and functional work environment which is focused on implementing quality violence prevention work. CEDOVIP serves as a role model to other civil society actors.
- CEDOVIP developed the entire GBV module for the police training curriculum for incoming and in-service officers to increase knowledge and develop skills to handle VAW issues. This will go a long way in creating a supportive environment for women at the police at the police stations